The Typical Age For A Child Getting Their First Smartphone Is Now 10 3 Years

Personally, my mental well being has improved with my social media abstinence. Although not as intense as hit of cocaine, constructive social stimuli will similarly lead to a release of dopamine, reinforcing whatever behavior preceded it. Cognitive neuroscientists have proven that rewarding social stimuli—laughing faces, constructive recognition by our peers, messages from beloved ones—activate the identical dopaminergic reward pathways. Smartphones have provided us with a nearly unlimited supply of social stimuli, each constructive and negative. Every notification, whether it’s a text message, a “like” on Instagram, or a Facebook notification, has the potential to be a optimistic social stimulus and dopamine inflow.


The feature is used for bolus insulin dosing, mentioned the corporate. According to the nonprofit group Beyond Type 1, bolus insulin is a kind of insulin taken to prevent glucose spikes after meals. The Food and Drug Administration cleared the first app for iPhone and Android gadgets capable of giving diabetes patients doses of insulin. Speaking of traveling, 27 p.c of respondents admit they’re utterly reliant on their smartphone for directions.

Justin Trudeaus Crackdown On Protests May Make Issues Worse

This helps make positive that apps that come to your system are protected “out of the field,” — at the price of some user restrictions. For instance, iOS solely allows one copy of an app on every system. So, if a consumer has a company-provided copy of an app, with security restrictions in-built, the consumer can’t even have an unrestricted model of the same app for private use. The huge battery coupled with fast charging and quick wi-fi charging completes the package deal and makes the Mi 11 Ultra an outstanding choice for those in search of a flagship phone, offered it’s available in your area. It will get most things proper and you’ll definitely not be disappointed by what the Mi eleven Ultra presents.

The Complete Guide To Breaking Your Smartphone Behavior

The time an individual spends on totally different smartphone apps is enough to establish them from a larger group in a couple of in three instances say researchers, who warn of the implications for safety and privacy. A tweet by Pei has raised rumors that Nothing could also be making a smartphone. While that tweet might need a double meaning, the extra believable one is that the tweet is simply him saying a switch again to Android after being an iPhone user since he left OnePlus. Nothing Inc., the tech startup founded by former OnePlus co-founder, Carl Pei, launched its first product in 2021, the Nothing ear earbuds.

On Tuesday, Apple CEO Tim Cook warned silicon provide constraints would have an effect on gross sales of the iPhone as nicely as other merchandise like the iPad. Smartphones have so far been largely shielded from the chip shortage, as massive producers stockpiled important parts. By subscribing you affirm you’re pleased for us to send you our newest articles. Showcasing futuristic and thrilling features is among the most conspicuous ways of attaining this, and the manufacturers that …

All The Sensors In Your Smartphone, And How They Work

Thinking about the smartphone helps us put the pieces together as a result of the system itself facilitates and undergirds new models of accumulation. Smartphone use has steadily increased lately, and now 77% of Americans own a smartphone. How telephones are being used has also changed rapidly, transferring away from the fundamental function of creating calls, and in the course of other functions. Mobile expertise has modified how we get info and talk, do business, and stay our lives. Further, on the earth of enterprise, the benefits for shoppers are pretty obvious.


While it might seem that losing your self on-line will quickly make feelings corresponding to loneliness, despair, and tedium evaporate into thin air, it could possibly truly make you’re feeling even worse. A 2014 research found a correlation between excessive social media usage and melancholy and nervousness. Users, especially teens, tend to check themselves unfavorably with their friends on social media, selling emotions of loneliness and depression.

8 1 Required Hardware And Software Program

Resource LibraryFind the most recent sources to make the best determination in your project, together with white papers, stories, webinars, and so forth. Get the assist you to need, if you want it, with our range of help and training options. Search our ecosystem of companions for the next technology Arm-based solutions. StoragePower to fulfill the rising wants of HDD & SSD storage functions. IndustrialIndustrial and operational practices become rising environment friendly with related IoT units. LaptopsAlways-on, at all times linked laptops provide richer, extra productive experiences.

Each Vivo & Google Plan To Ship Their First Foldable Smartphones This 12 Months

Teenagers typically rebel against their dad and mom, but when they hear the same info from a different authority figure, they might be extra inclined to listen. Don’t be afraid to hunt skilled counseling in case you are involved about your child’s smartphone use. Get your baby away from screens by exposing them to other hobbies and actions, such as group sports, Scouts, and after-school clubs.

The prototype resulted in an improved model being released to the market in 1994, referred to as the Simon Personal Communicator. This gadget was the first official smartphone, with capabilities to ship and receive e-mails, and included apps like an handle e-book, calculator, calendar, and a notepad. Some front-facing cameras are usually pushed as a lot as the highest of a display with a notch.

This helps be certain that apps that come to your gadget are protected “out of the box,” — at the worth of some user restrictions. For example, iOS only permits one copy of an app on each device. So, if a consumer has a company-provided copy of an app, with security restrictions built in, the user can not also have an unrestricted version of the same app for private use. The big battery coupled with fast charging and quick wireless charging completes the package and makes the Mi 11 Ultra an excellent possibility for these on the lookout for a flagship phone, …


This vary of units signifies that soon there will be a profound change within the form of patient help and residential care in the broad sense shall be increasingly more a reality in most elements of our Planet. “The inventor that impressed Elon Musk and Larry Page predicted smartphones nearly 100 years ago.” Business Insider, July 6, 2015. Available to certified customers and requires 24‑month installment mortgage when you select Citizens One or Apple Card Monthly Installments as fee type at checkout at Apple. IPhone activation required with AT&T, T‑Mobile, Sprint, or Verizon for purchases made with ACMI at an Apple Store. Taxes and delivery aren’t included in ACMI and are topic to your card’s variable APR. Additional Apple Card Monthly Installments phrases are in the Customer Agreement.


The StudentLife examine also used objective outcome measures of functioning, like cumulative and term grade point averages. It is comprised of a cell phone, a housing that contains the illumination and assortment optics, and an built-in phone holder that ensures alignment of the illuminating and collecting optics with the phone’s digicam. It uses a single 54D ophthalmic lens for focusing and capturing reflected mild, in turn using the autofocus mechanism of the iPhone’s digital camera to appropriate for variability in axial size and refractive error in the topic’s eye.

Lately Introduced Smartphones With Corning® Gorilla® Glass

ACMI is not obtainable for purchases made on-line at special storefronts. The final month’s payment for each product would be the product’s purchase price, less all different payments at the month-to-month cost amount. Apple’s iOS is beautiful, easy, and simple to make use of, and the App Store presents one of the best app choice possible.

The iPhone 7 Plus included a major 12 MP digicam together with a 12 MP telephoto digital camera. In early 2018 Huawei released a brand new flagship phone, the Huawei P20 Pro, one of many first triple digicam lens setups with Leica optics. In late 2018, Samsung released a new mid-range smartphone, the Galaxy A9 with the world’s first quad digital camera setup. The Nokia 9 PureView was released in 2019 that includes a penta-lens digicam system. More current “bezel-less” sorts have their display surface area prolonged to the unit’s front bottom to compensate for the display space lost for simulating the navigation keys. While digital keys supply more potential customizability, their location could also be inconsistent amongst methods and/or relying on display screen rotation and software used.

Galaxy A32 5g

Features like speaker high quality, battery life, construct high quality and design, and storage space are underneath constant scrutiny. However, it’s secure to say practically all different kind components are useless. This is a product of a shift in the way individuals use telephones and the prominence of multimedia consumption. However, units just like the N73, E71, E90, 3650, and N82 all nonetheless resonate with former Symbian users.

Techopedia Explains Smartphone

The iPhone 12 Mini was a dream come true for small phone lovers. Apple finally made a flagship …

U S Smartphone Penetration Surpassed 80 Percent In 2016

Daily active visits on YouTube is over 30 million in 2020, with each viewing session averaging 40 minutes. People come online more typically with their smartphones than with some other gadget, so it is only affordable that an excellent chunk of video time on YouTube comes from cell. Smartphone statistics for 2020 reveal that in-app advertising is likely one of the best methods mobile app owners earn money.


This sets a troubling precedent of censorship, which can stifle innovation and fosters conformity. As technology becomes more intimately woven into our lives, the implications of this single level of management over our digital experiences are threatening creative freedom. Ross Young, a display analyst, shared some information about the foldable smartphone market in 2021 on Twitter. According to Ross, Samsung loved an 88% share of foldable smartphone shipments in 2021, clearly dominating the foldable smartphone market. These numbers had been basically from an upcoming report from the Display Supply Chain. A lot has been written about how extraordinary the year 2016 was, and there’s a great likelihood you learn some of those articles, tweets and Facebook posts on your smartphone.

Iphone 11

Actual battery life is dependent upon elements corresponding to community, features chosen, frequency of calls, and voice, information, and other utility utilization patterns. The Google Pixel 6 Pro’s unique design, great software program additions, very good camera high quality and strong all-around performance have already earned the phone a wonderful rating in our full review. With efficiency that is every bit as good as its design, it’s one of the best phone Google has ever made. And at $899 for the base 128GB mannequin, it trounces its premium phone rivals in price. The iPhone thirteen Pro is the most effective phone Apple produces and it acquired a stellar score in our evaluate. The new smartphone adds a third rear digicam with 3x optical zoom , a stainless-steel physique and a ProMotion screen with refresh charges as a lot as 120Hz for smoother scrolling.

Originally, “FireChat” was created to help individuals join in cities with poor Wi-Fi protection or throughout large-scale occasions the place the quantity of users could cause conventional wireless and cellular networks to grind to a halt. But in 2012, safety company Lookout’s Mobile Mindset Study reflected the methods smartphone users’ obsessive want to remain related is growing by leaps and bounds. According to the examine, 60 p.c of users don’t go greater than an hour with out checking their phone. More than half stated they verify their phones while in mattress, earlier than going to sleep, upon waking and even in the course of the night time. In a 2012 survey by Elon University and the Pew Research Center, technology specialists debated the merits and pitfalls of the hyper-connectivity and instantaneous entry to information afforded by smartphones.

What’s Going To Samsung Announce At Mwc 2022?

Her analysis explores how people make choices involving threat, uncertainty, and sophisticated feelings. Clearly, as a result of it’s impacting each aspect …

The Typical Age For A Child Getting Their First Smartphone Is Now 10 3 Years

While only a minor update to the Red Magic 6 from earlier in 2021, the 6S Pro pushed the envelope by being one of the first telephones to showcase Qualcomm’s Snapdragon 888+ chipset. 2020’s Realme X50 Pro supplied spectacular efficiency for any flagship, let alone one at the worth point it managed to hit, and historical past repeats itself with 2021’s Realme GT. Google’s getting all worked over the means in which Apple handles messages from Android users, but the reality of the state of affairs isn’t quite as black and white because it appears.


For instance, Abilene Christian University in Texas now provides each incoming freshman an iPhone and integrates the device into the curriculum. Some apps, he says, are not simply enjoyable — they may alter the means in which we relate and learn from each other. Tech blogger, fan of technology, entrepreneurship, and music. The firm did its greatest to elucidate how cool it was that it was able to create a flagship in a white gown.

The OnePlus Nord N10 is OnePlus’s first try and burst into the finances smartphone market, and it’s a cracking effort. It comes with a 6.49-inch full-HD 90Hz LCD display that offers clean screen transitions and an excellent viewing expertise if you’re trying to watch films and TV on your phone. You get the same impressive digicam array that was found in the S20, along with a stunning 120Hz AMOLED HD display which combines together for an excellent photograph taking and viewing experience. And whereas the cameras themselves are the same as last year’s mannequin, there have been a ton of software improvements underneath the hood.

First Smartphone Turns 20: Enjoyable Facts About Simon

Note that free accounts do not embrace access to premium content material on this web site. Screen for heightened risk individual and entities globally to assist uncover hidden dangers in business relationships and human networks. Build the strongest argument relying on authoritative content material, attorney-editor expertise, and trade defining technology. Sign up to our business e-newsletter for a day by day digest of breaking business information. Handset brands are currently experiencing manufacturing points because of a worldwide pc chip shortage.

It supplies a physical mechanism to allow fixed access to our digital selves and opens an almost uncharted frontier of commodification. The pool of people who have access to OKCupid’s knowledge is remarkably large — OkCupid, together with different companies like Match and Tinder, is owned by IAC/InterActiveCorp, the sixth-largest on-line network on the earth. Crafting a self on OKCupid might or could not yield love, but it undoubtedly yields company earnings. They examine them continuously all through the day and maintain them near their bodies. They sleep subsequent to them, convey them to the lavatory, and stare at them while they stroll, eat, examine, work, wait, and drive. Twenty percent of young adults even admit to checking their telephones during sex.

It’s a battle of continuous the sport for extra rewards or ending it as quickly …


It even lets you record videos in Cinematic mode, which helps you easily switch focus between topics by altering the depth of field. It has a model new processor, an even bigger battery, 128GB of inner storage, and uses the same giant digicam sensor because the acclaimed iPhone 12 Pro Max, however you wouldn’t realize it from its compact dimension. Starting at $829 , the iPhone thirteen features a new A15 Bionic chip, an OLED display, 128GB of inside storage, and compatibility with all 5G networks. Last however not least, we take one of the best telephones out within the field to take pictures outside, indoors and at night in low light to see how they carry out versus their closest rivals. We take pictures of landscapes, meals, portraits and more, and in addition allow you to be the decide with side-by-side comparisons in our evaluations.


While the capacity of the battery has increased, what’s answerable for the increment in battery life is principally the A15 Bionic chip from Apple. It’s more power-efficient than last year’s A14 Bionic whereas being some of the powerful chipsets around. The iPhone thirteen Mini can be a performance beast and can play essentially the most graphic-intensive video games with ease. You can also shoot and edit 4K 60fps movies immediately from the phone along with the option to record movies in the new Cinematic Mode.

Uncover Prolonged Warranty And Safety Plans

The company apparently shipped 88-percent of total foldable smartphones final yr. The transformative energy of smartphones comes from their dimension and connectivity. Because transmitting knowledge is affordable this power is available on the transfer. Since 2005 the price of delivering one megabyte wirelessly has dropped from $8 to a few cents.

Affording The Value Of A Smartphone

This is not solely a safety tip, but also a time-saving tip for these weary of explaining to associates tips on how to find a picnic spot or tailgate get together. You merely have your phone send a map pinpointing your location. The latest telephones can be set to mechanically message your emergency contacts if you press on the hardware buttons. With other Android telephones, you’ll be able to set up an automatic response that does the same factor whenever you invoke Google Assistant with the “Hey, Google” command.

The accelerometer then interprets the voltage coming from the crystals to determine out how briskly your phone is shifting and which course it’s pointing in. When Apple Inc. launched the iPhone, it was the primary actual change that we saw out there for the explanation that market was born. Smartphones had at all times been seen more along the lines of something that business individuals used, and Apple did a quite magnificent job translating the idea over to one thing that a client would want. In the years that may comply with, from 1996 to 2011, the Symbian OS would be the world’s chief for smartphone working techniques. Ericsson’s R380 was the primary phone to ship with …

What It Means To Be ‘At All Times On’ A Smartphone

Asus even put a small display on the again of this phone that you could customize via the Armory Crate app. The iPhone thirteen Pro Max has arguably one of the best chipset on any phone proper now. The A15 Bionic from Apple is a beast when it comes to performance so if you’re going to be doing intensive tasks on your phone like gaming, or editing and rendering movies, the iPhone 13 Pro Max can be the right alternative. Apart from raw performance, Apple’s hardware and software integration is unmatched. [newline]What this means is the OS is perfectly optimized to run with the hardware onboard and this applies even for third-party apps.


Offer will not be out there in all stores, and will vary between in-store and online trade-in. Apple or its trade-in companions reserve the best to refuse or restrict quantity of any trade-in transaction for any reason. More details can be found from Apple’s trade-in associate for trade-in and recycling of eligible units.

Galaxy Upcycling At Residence

Many app distributors, who know a fantastic deal about you, promote information with out correct disclosure; mobile-privacy insurance policies routinely rival “Hamlet” for size. And if leaked paperwork are appropriate, GCHQ, Britain’s signals-intelligence company, has managed to hack a big vendor of SIM playing cards so as to find a way to hear in to people’s calls . If spooks in democracies are doing this sort of thing, you probably can make sure that these in authoritarian regimes will, too. Smartphones will give dictators unprecedented scope to spy on and corral their unwilling topics. To address this, these researchers have developed a blood clotting take a look at that may be performed at house using a smartphone.

Second Israeli Firm Accused Of Undermining Iphones, Like Nso Group

Smartphone stats present most consumers lookup product reviews and evaluate prices. With the espresso in his hand, James will get again within the automotive and drives on to the mall. Once there, he begins on the lookout for the right items for his family. He decides on a brand new smartphone for Jenny however can’t choose the model. This is an average proportion as a result of smartphone ownership statistics present significantly lower use of smartphones in certain parts of the world. Almost each internet consumer in China is accessing it by way of their phone.

We also run a real-world video transcoding check on each phone utilizing the Adobe Premiere Rush app and time the end result. The Galaxy Z Fold 3 additionally introduces new features such as displays with 120Hz refresh charges , an under-display digicam on that inside display and S Pen help. That latter characteristic is optionally available, although, meaning you’ll must pay extra for the stylus. While it does quite a bit proper, the Galaxy S22 Plus struggles to wow us with its battery life. In reality, it just barely beats out its predecessor within the Tom’s Guide take a look at. With the Pixel 5a, Google adds …

Blood Clotting Test On A Smartphone

Erving Goffman, an influential American sociologist, was fascinated in the self and how individuals produce and perform their selves by way of social interaction. By his own admission, Goffman was a bit Shakespearean — for him “all the world is a stage.” He argued that social interactions can be thought of as performances, and that people’s performances vary depending on their audience. In this manner, our hand machines fit seamlessly into the fashionable world of work.


Eb browsing, and the ability to run software program applications. Keep it and get $500 if you convey your phone on select Unlimited plans. Because its storage just isn’t expandable, and depending on how you’ll be utilizing the phone, you may wish to chunk the bullet and upgrade to the next tier. For extra on getting phones for less, see our list of one of the best low cost phones. If your phone took a header in the pool or met its demise on the pavement, get whatever’s obtainable that greatest meets your wants. But should you’re watching your finances or driving the leading edge, slightly knowledge and planning can maintain you from shopping for a phone that’s about to be discounted or replaced with something newer and cooler.

Huawei P20 Pro

Massive but fashionable, it’s the Android with one of the best digicam and battery pack. The right phone for you goes to depend on your wireless service, finances, and particular person needs, however you’ll find the top-ranking telephones from every class among the many choices beneath. The biggest and best Android smartphone a lot of money can purchase. We may earn fee when you buy from a hyperlink.How we check gear. With such articles like this I am hoping that more folks will get to learn about these things and in no time just like the GDPR Law in Europe, i hope we may have legal guidelines that may a minimal of repair some of this exploitation. It’s such a shame how big tech retains exploiting humans without conscience.

Most of us have become so intimately entwined with our digital lives that we generally feel our phones vibrating in our pockets when they aren’t even there. As such, the software program grew to become barely more user-friendly, third-party functions and video games slowly started to circle Internet forums , and wi-fi providers began providing the extra capable smartphones along with knowledge plans. She continued by saying that she felt like, prior to now, cellphones have been merely utilized by youngsters to have voice contact with their parents.

Equivalent to a stick of reminiscence in a pc, you presumably can run a number of applications at the same time without stuttering. Can enhance the switch time, Internet velocity, game loading speed, and so on. “The Average Cost of a Cellphone Plan in the united states is $113.” Accessed Feb. 17, 2022. Thomas J Catalano is a CFP and Registered Investment Adviser with the state of South Carolina, where he launched his own financial …

Latest Tech News, Smartphone News, Updates, Evaluations, Recreation News

Snicker1633 is using a Raspberry Pi to energy an artificial window with a reside view of his home safety digital camera. In a model new press launch for its new UD1000GM PSU, Gigabyte seems to state that every one future PCIe GPUs will use the brand new 16-pin energy connector. It’s simple for researchers to fall back on using test topics from the communities around them – college students and staff. Branching out is vital to avoiding technology that fails certain populations.

Latest Technology News

GM Ventures right now announced its participation within the $40 million Series B funding round for RapidDeploy, a public security technology company working to accelerate Next Generation 911. At CES at present, BrightDrop, the technology company decarbonizing last-mile supply, introduced it’s adding Walmart to its rising roster of customers, and increasing its relationship with FedEx. In a virtual keynote right now at CES 2022, General Motors Chair and CEO Mary Barra outlined the waves of change that are coming as society strikes toward the mass adoption of electric vehicles. GM, an organization transitioning from automaker to platform innovator, supplied a view of EV technology’s inflection point at CES one 12 months in the past. Advertising Age serves the marketing and advertising neighborhood with competitive intelligence. Over time, it is turn out to be the leading international supply of reports, evaluation, and inspiration for the industry.

University Seen As Properly

2H ago NASA’s new “NACHOS” instrument may help predict volcanic eruptions NACHOS is a pint-sized powerhouse dedicated to observing trace gases that can be harbingers of volcanic exercise. Meta launched its short-video product Reels for all world Facebook customers and introduced many new features for advertisers. Upgrade your lifestyleDigital Trends helps readers hold tabs on the fast-paced world of tech with all the newest news, fun product evaluations, insightful editorials, and one-of-a-kind sneak peeks. Build the strongest argument counting on authoritative content, attorney-editor expertise, and trade defining technology. The 22-year-old life-simulation video game has developed into a world where gamers can farm, forage, cook dinner and learn about the many ways people experience meals. Even as they allow some workers to vary how often they come into the workplace, tech corporations are rapidly buying and leasing properties around the nation.

The Politics Behind Ineffective Covid Remedies

This platform is considered some of the reliable sources for Apple-relevant news, and it’s founding team has been infeatured in Business Insider. Unlike many different tech web sites, The Next Web has been capable of keep away from controversy and continues to thrive drama-free today. In 2011, the corporate was accused of moral violations and the founder, Michael Arrington, left the company. Fortunately, the corporate was able to bounce back, and still supplies great technological updates for consumers. Students also articulated varying needs for computing energy and size of loan—which Trkay and her teams are responding to with the HEERF-funded program.

Share, tweet, and save your favourite stories with the tap of a button. EWeek has the latest technology news and evaluation, …

I Gave My Youngster A Smartphone And It Has Been The Best Thing For Her

They feed the demand for autonomy and assist protest actions to coalesce. A system that palms a lot power to the person has the potential to problem authoritarianism. With all these individuals counting on their smartphones for every little thing, it’s no shock they’re constantly in search of locations to charge their dying batteries! Surprisingly, the ballot of two,000 smartphone users finds solely three in 10 claim they by no means leave their home without their phone. When they do bring their telephones along, nevertheless, most people are completely depending on it for assist. NEW YORK —Does it feel like your smartphone never leaves your hand?


I doubt people stop bumping into one another, however it’s a start. Although fewer smartphones were bought final 12 months compared to 2017, the trade is increasing at a gradual rate. Now that we all know how many individuals have smartphones, we can consider how much cash they spend on them.

Smartphone Or Web Habit Also Can Negatively Impact Your Life By:

In 2019, 56% of all web site site visitors worldwide was generated via mobile phones. Out of the 1.4 billion people in China, 58% of them are mobile phone homeowners. According to smartphone statistics for 2020, out of the 58% cell phone owners, only 3% aren’t using a smartphone. Mobile advertising supplies marketers with efficient targeting options, better conversion rates, and better click-through rates. In 2018, in-app advertising had a market share of$67.7 billion. It was predicted to develop at a CAGR of 19.4% through 2019 till 2025 when it could be worth $226 billion.

Cell Operating Systems

We’ve highlighted the Pixel 6 Pro above as a superb Android smartphone, however it’s the Google Pixel 6 that is easily the best value for money you may discover in a smartphone at the moment. The Pixel 6 shares the Pro mannequin’s beautiful new design, thrilling new hardware, a long-lasting battery, and a similarly excellent digital camera that gained’t allow you to down. But on prime of all this, you’ll additionally get Samsung’s desktop-emulating DeX mode that can join wirelessly to monitors, reverse wireless charging, an IP68-rating for water-resistance, and robust build high quality. On the downsides, nicely, there is no microSD card slot, and it is bigger than some individuals might need. But still, that is the most effective Android smartphone around, and the value reflects that.

A Snapdragon 888 runs the present, paired with as much as 12GB of speedy LPDDR5 RAM and accompanied by equally snappy UFS three.1 storage . Expect to find ordinary suspects from the likes of Samsung and Apple but don’t be afraid to learn our full evaluations and different content on gadgets from brands you may not be as familiar with. Apple’s newest mobile OS has seen vital uptake over the past four months, nevertheless it’s not even close to main past variations of iOS by method of having the quickest adoption price. Incredibly powerful Corning® Gorilla® Glass allows today’s sleekest smartphone designs, while offering distinctive harm …